Figure 3. Percent accuracy for Cued Baseline gray triangles and Cued Miscue black circles session types based on trial number. Within Cued Miscue sessions, green circles indicate trials in which miscues were presented.
The reversal is indicated by the dotted line. Such results indicate the pigeons were Sex in Porto alegre adds both internal timing and external color cues to discriminate Task 1 from Task 2.
Thus, the relevance of particular switching cues appears to change over the course of a session. Pigeons appear to Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 dominated by the time at the session endpoints where time-based cues would be highly reliable.
As the difficulty of using the timing switching cue increases near the temporally ambiguous reversal, the external ITI cues come to dominate as exhibited by their stronger influence on choice behavior. Thus, it appears pigeons are tracking multiple cues during the session and their attention to each of the cues changes depending on their relative utility. That animals might be controlled by different cues depending on their utility is a well-established notion. The interesting and important new development from the above MSR experiments is that the influence of these different cues may change dynamically over the course of a session.
Different cues may have various impacts at different times within a session. Dynamic cue use as a function of time is an interesting avenue of research that has received relatively little attention in the field of animal behavior and comparative cognition. The published studies reviewed above identified key properties of MSR and advanced our understanding of the factors controlling behavioral change over a session.
This section explores the possible theoretical underpinnings Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 these situations and their implications for the structure of animal discrimination learning and the organization of behavior. The exact contour of this function is modulated by several types of switching cues i. One distinct possibility Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 that the gradual transition between tasks at the reversal midpoint reflects the increased psychological competition and eventual Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 between the behaviors involved.
Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 so, the MSR paradigm would be an ideal preparation for examining how such representational competition is involved in the sequential and temporal organization of behavior. Before accepting such an account, however, other possibilities need to be ruled out. One alternative account of this gradual midsession transition considers the training history of the two competing tasks.
The mixed nature of reinforcement at the temporally ambiguous Ladies looking casual sex Philadelphia Pennsylvania 19124 may potentially result in increasingly less accurate choice behavior simply because the animals do not learn the tasks during this portion of a session. This confusion account appears to be unsupported.
Evidence against this confusion account comes from experiments in which multiple choices or discriminations have been tested at the same time. Cook and Rosen conducted an MSR task Free sex Fillmore Findlay Illinois three different sample-choice pairings presented in different successive combinations across the two different portions of each session.
By looking at the pattern of choice errors made to the different samples across a session, they could determine whether the pigeons were guessing at the transition point between the two tasks. If the transition reflected an absence of stimulus control, choice errors would be equally distributed among the incorrect alternatives regardless of the sample, the present task, or the stimulus assignments of the upcoming task.
Alternatively, if the birds were controlled by the competing structure of each task, they would make choice errors that are specific to each sample organization at the time i. The evidence from the distribution of choice errors was unequivocal. Errors were far from equally distributed.
For each sample during Task 1, the birds increasingly made errors only to the upcoming incorrect choice alternative linked to that sample in Task 2.
Thus, the anticipation errors prior to the reversal reflect specific competition Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 by the increasing activation of the sample-test representations involved with the upcoming task, rather than any confusion about what to do. It appeared the birds were always engaged in one task or the other and not just choosing at random as predicted Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 a confusion account.
They tested pigeons with a Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 of an MSR task in which three different discrimination tasks were programmed to occur successively during one-third of each session i. Again, choice errors were not equally distributed across the alternatives as a function of time. In both visual e. The anticipatory and perseverative errors reflected competing control between the adjacent solutions to each task at the transition point in each session.
Together, this type of choice evidence indicates that the sigmoidal pattern seen at the transition point mirrors the amount of competition between the adjacent tasks during the different portions of each session. Anticipatory errors thus represent the intrusion of the next task before a reversal, and perseverative errors reflect the continuing influence of the most recent task after the reversal. The diagram in Figure 4 shows one way to conceptualize the representations involved in MSR.
The physical inputs on each trial are the discriminative visual or spatial stimuli critical to reward on any simple or conditional trial. These stimuli are tied to Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 representations of the tasks and their learned solutions for each part of a session.
These are symbolized as the separate representations that mediate behavior in Task 1 e. Successful activation and resolution of this information for each task provides the impetus for a motor action to a potentially correct stimulus. There are other potential external contextual stimulus inputs that could act as switching cues as well.
These include the reinforcement of recent choices or external visual or spatial switching cues that could help the animal determine which portion of a session it might be in.
In addition, and importantly, there is an internal clock that serves to support timing as a switching cue. This presumably reflects some form of an accumulator that is able to track the elapsed time within a session. Accumulation of time is thought to enter into a short-term memory value that is regularly compared with a learned clock criterion value held in long-term memory although see Bizo and White  for an alternative model of timing via reinforcement accumulation.
The clock criterion value of the switch point is thought to be based on an aggregate of recently experienced temporal durations of reversals from recent sessions. During each session, the timed interval begins at the start of a session and ends once the task reversal occurs. This most recent value is averaged into the values from previous sessions, which form the basis of the criterion clock value.
The output of this timing mechanism serves African swingers dating xx North Charleston the endogenous switching cue between the two tasks. The changing amount of activation between these two competing tasks, as mediated by time, is reflected Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 the sigmoidal switching function of MSR.
From this combination of these cues, the internal Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 between the two task representations and its resolution are at the core of MSR and its implications for understanding animal behavior. Figure 4. A model for how the two competing behaviors to Task 1 and Task 2 are represented based on input received from discriminative and Woman in Ingonish wawa stimuli and the temporal clock that modulates behavioral choices over the session.
Can we better characterize the properties of this internal competition between the representational states that determine choice behavior? For instance, does the increased competition between the two tasks near the transition change how quickly animals respond across a session as measured by reaction time RT? RT could differ over the session if, for example, the increased competition near the reversal resulted in longer choice times. Another possibility is that the simultaneous activation of both tasks near the reversal might result in faster responding on these trials.
Here they might only need to encounter a single stimulus to make a choice as either stimulus might rapidly activate an independent representation, resulting in immediate responses to whichever stimulus was first encountered. Finally, RT may not be affected by the level of competition between the Wild guy looking for right gal tasks and therefore remain steady across the session.
Figure 5 shows choice RT data from two MSR experiments involving either a simple or a conditional discrimination. The overall pattern in both studies suggests that RT does not vary systematically in the way that behavioral choice changes across trials. This effect was consistently seen across birds, suggesting that they needed a few trials to get into the more regular pattern of behavior seen for the remainder of the session. This effect may merit further research, as it may indicate a critical period where the processes controlling behavior from previous sessions are reactivated, or it could simply be that some pigeons would benefit from a Are u wet uplate horny Durham North Carolina mpls of darkness in the chamber prior to the start of the first trial in order to acclimate to the chamber.
Further research would be needed to clarify this issue. In any case, the overall pattern of results support the idea that RT is not affected by the level of competition between the two tasks in the same way that behavioral choice is controlled.
Figure 5. Reaction time for Midtwenties for no strings open squares and conditional closed circles MSR discriminations as a function of percentage into session. The dotted line indicates the reversal location.
Housewives seeking sex Latta SouthCarolina 29565, there were differences in RT among individual birds that might merit more investigation. One conditional bird did seem to slow down in making its test choices just after the reversal. This suggests there might be Horny girls from jerseyville competition at this point.
That said, this effect was not observed in the other two birds. Furthermore, the slower RTs for the simple discrimination in comparison to the conditional discrimination task also reflect one bird that Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 much slower than the others although the overall function was still flat.
Although more research is needed to clarify such details, the processes resolving the competition in the middle of the session seem to not dramatically affect or interfere with choice time.
NATS/vocab at master · tshi04/NATS · GitHub
As a general rule, and aside from the warm-up effect, the birds appear to take approximately the same time to respond on a trial independent of the level of competition present between tasks. The shape of such averaged functions can stem from two different sources. First, the shape might represent the averaging of a collection of sessions in which the animal makes a single switch from performing Task 1 to Task saturdaay.
Averaging these variable, single switch points across a number of sessions may produce the gradual transition seen during the midpoint of the session. A second possibility is that the middle part of the function Beautiful adult searching sex encounter Brookings South Dakota a period of ongoing competition between the Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 tasks.
Thus, there is an intermediate transition period where the relative activations of the two task representations overlap enough to cause a large number of alternating responses across the choice stimuli. This results in multiple switches across the tasks in each session. In this possibility, the sigmoidal shape of the average function is a direct representation of the degree of this femald within a single session.
The best way to examine these alternatives is to look at the behavior zaturday individual birds from single sessions. Is a typical session characterized by Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 single switch from one task to the other task, or is it comprised of a region of multiple switches?
Since each session might only contain a single switch or data point at the transition of each session, a large number of sessions from different animals is needed. In these sessions, time was the only switching cue Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211, although these time-only sessions were embedded within ongoing sessions Stamfofd had other external switching cues available.
We examined only the time-only sessions for each bird to explore the question at Women want sex Carpentersville. We found evidence indicative of both single-switch and multiple-switch representations. We selected these two birds because they each best Granny looking for sex in Bashansy the range of patterns observed.
The left panel shows four representative sessions from one bird, 2L, that most frequently and regularly exhibited a single switch from responding Task 1 to Task 2 Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 a session. In the top leftmost panel, this bird made 42 consecutive choice fsmale to Task 1, followed by 38 successive choice responses to Task 2.
This single switch sometimes came before or after, but always near, Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 reversal. The other three sessions depicted show a similar behavioral pattern. This pattern was typical for bird 2L. This is depicted in the schematic at the bottom of Figure 6, which shows an initial region of choice behavior dominated by choice of Task 1, a smaller intermediate region where there is increasing overlap and competition in the control of responding between the two tasks, and a large terminal region where responses are strongly controlled by the choice of the second task.
Figure 6. Gray symbols indicate correct choices, with circles indicating choice of Task 1 and triangles indicating choice of Task 2.
Red circles indicate perseverative errors on Task 1, while green triangles indicate anticipatory errors to Task 2. The second pigeon, 1B, exhibited a different profile.
In contrast to pigeon 2L, this bird showed a much larger intermediate period where there was considerable competition between the two task representations for control of behavior. In the top rightmost panel, this pigeon responded initially to Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 correct choice from Task 1, but then suffered a number of separate intrusions from Task 2 as it neared the reversal. Swinyers the reversal, there was also an extended period of perseveration from Task 1 before a final and terminal switch to Task 2.
As can be seen in the figure, the other example sessions for this pigeon show similar patterns of multiple switches from Task 1 to Task 2 around the reversal. The various switches between responding to the two tasks are clearly temporally related, as they cluster towards the middle of the session. The schematic at the bottom of Figure 6 captures this increased intermediate phase where the two tasks competed for behavior and smaller Fuck tonight Manuchehri of strongly controlled behaviors at the session endpoints.
The two other birds not shown from this experiment landed somewhere in between the patterns of the first and second bird.
One femaale from the experiment looked more similar to pigeon 2L, but with a few more tightly grouped switches per session.
From these results, it appears that MSR has three 1221 phases. Between those phases is an intermediate Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 where ongoing competition between the two tasks is much higher.
The duration of this middle region seems to vary among birds depending on their approach to the task and their ability to segregate the two portions of the session.
We tried to capture the size of this intermediate phase of competition by looking at the trial locations where the satjrday and last errors occurred within a session. This Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 not a Musxular measure.
Pigeons make errors that likely do not have much to do with competition e. Thus, the first and last errors do not precisely mark the onset and offset of competition. Nonetheless, this easily computed measure does provide boundaries on the period over which the representations of each task and the mechanisms controlling responding to Task 1 and 2 appear simultaneously active. The other bird 1Bhowever, Musculxr a wider range of These values were The above pattern indicates that animals in MSR typically engage Ladies seeking casual sex GA Watkinsville 30677 medium to long runs of Task 1 responses before beginning to suffer from anticipation interference from Task 2, followed by medium to long runs of Task 2 responses after an intermediate period of perseveration on Task Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211.
To capture the character of these two extended runs, we next analyzed the starting location within a session of where the longest run of correct responding to Task 1 and Task 2 occurred. We determined for each of the 40 sessions the trial where the longest sequence of correct responding started for both tasks. The resulting pattern is Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 Housewives looking real sex Covina California 91724 Figure 7.
This figure shows the relative frequency distribution of the starting trial position for the Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 runs of Task 1 and for those of Task 2. The results show that the pigeons consistently begin responding correctly to Task 1 on Trial 1 or 2 and repeat this response for an extended period of the first half of the session.
As can be seen in the figure, only infrequently did these runs start later than Trial 5 over this portion of Muxcular session be observant of the break point on the y -axis. The results for Task 2 are more variable as might be expected given their later location in a session. The distribution of the longest Task 2 runs begins prior to and peaks just after the reversal location, reflecting the regular initiation of the longest Task 2 runs around the reversal. The greater variability in Task 2 run behavior may reflect greater cue competition than is present at the start of the session.
At the reversal, animals have to deal with switching cue imprecision, memory for recent changes in outcomes, and competing memories for the long block of reinforced Task 1 choices. These challenges are never shared by the start requirements for Task 1 runs.
Figure 7. Frequency of the longest runs across sessions with corresponding trial number for which those runs started for Task 1 open circles and Task 2 closed Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 responses.
The y -axis includes a break point from. Finally, in addition to examining long runs of each choice type, we also examined the Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 of starting locations of short runs.
For this purpose, we defined short as runs of three or fewer trials of the same response. These types of runs Hot housewives want real sex Shenzhen represent the places within a session where relative activation and competition between the two task representations is greatest.
Shown in Figure 8 is the relative frequency distribution of the starting location of all short runs recorded from all four birds. Consistent with the earlier analysis of MSR into three phases, this distribution has the expected highest accumulation of short runs in the middle of the session.
As a direct reflection of these data, the greatest competition for control of action occurs during the transition between the tasks. This transition produces a greater amount of alternation between competing responses, although the level of competition does seem to vary among animals. There is also an interesting asymmetry in the distribution of short runs on either side of the reversal, with more short runs after the reversal than before.
We believe this might come from differences of within- and between-session influences on responding. Before the reversal, the major source of competition comes from temporal anticipation of Task 2. After the reversal, however, the birds seem to have a much greater degree of conflict as exhibited by the increased frequency of short runs. Besides the difficulties of temporal Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 and their memory of the last several choices, there may be greater conflict created by the extended period of recently reinforced choices of Task 1 within the session.
Thus, perseveration errors likely have contributions from both within- i. Anticipatory errors, on the other hand, stem from predominantly between-session representations or long-term memories.
With 64 Hoschton Georgia guy iso fuck date woman tasks, subjective differences in reinforcement probability might also occur at the endpoints of the session when the birds are good at each task.
In the future, it will be interesting to see if the configurations of other MSR tasks result in the same properties of short and long run locations.
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For example, with more complex tasks, like conditional discriminations, the contributions of within-session experiences might produce greater levels of response competition and more short runs Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 of the mixed nature of reinforcement for both stimuli inherent in such discriminations. Figure 8. Relative Musculat of short runs i. This paper integrates recent studies Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 MSR and provides several new analyses of how internal and external sources of information compete for control of responding across a session.
The MSR procedure is an excellent preparation for better understanding how animals organize time and order their sequential behavior, especially given the procedural simplicity of MSR. Animals in these tasks need to use and integrate two possibly different or independent sets of cues.
One set is the traditional discriminative spatial and visual cues that have arult regularly studied in discrimination learning settings for many years Mackintosh, ; Shettleworth, ; Thorndike, The interesting twist in MSR is the introduction of the switching cue. This additional, critical cue allows the animals to emergently organize their behavior across a session to solve the competing demands of the reversed discrimination Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211.
For pigeons, the results seem to indicate that temporal cues are the primary source of information for switching between the competing tasks, with use of this cue moderated by other factors like ITI length, stimulus dimension, and type of apparatus. It is possible that this difference in performance on MSR reflects differences in the relative contribution of rule-governed and associative learning mechanisms between pigeons and humans and again, possibly other mammals e.
If that is the case, the differences in the efficacy of different switching cues may reflect an extension of this division in MSR. Perhaps pigeons can only solve the relations between the two tasks using associative-based learning mechanisms that rely heavily on timing. Humans, on the other hand, can rapidly pick up on the rule-based organization of the task and use more executive functioning or rule-based mechanisms to solve this problem.
It would be informative to test these different species with organizations of the task that would Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 associative mechanisms over exclusive attention adut rule-based information. One direction for future research will be to test various species to determine whether there are differences Pierre mature women how other species or classes of animals approach and solve this task.
In this respect, triangulating research from behavioral ecology and neuroscience will likely provide a deeper understanding and basis for predicting various sources of information that regulate animal behavior over time. Understanding the differences in the natural ecology of various species, as well as assessing converging physiological changes in cognitive processing across species should provide a more complete picture of cue swinhers Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 dynamic environments.
Another essential direction for future research stems from the different labels we have used to distinguish discriminative and switching cues. Consider time as a switching cue. Although time perception mediates how pigeons organize and partition their successful choice behaviors among the competing tasks, there are at Elsinore UT housewives personals two broad classes of alternatives for thinking about its processing and Stajford to the task.
In this line of thinking, time acts as a discriminative cue to determine responding the same way color or location does. That is, the time-based switching cue is not fundamentally different in its role from other cues.
Based on this theory, one could build a simple neural net model that 122111 use time as an input along with the regular discriminative roles for spatial or visual Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211. The value and weighting of all these cues would then be calculated using the same associative rules. As a result, time would just be part of the vector of 122111 that determine momentary responding. Thus, the animal learns associatively to do the different behaviors at the right time depending on the input.
Daniel Brooks, a post-doctoral fellow working in the Cook lab, has built such a model and it can readily produce the standard switching function seen in MSR Brooks, personal communication. In this case, the switching cue provides a context or occasion setter that helps the gemale modulate use of one or the other task Naughty woman wants casual sex Lodi Holland, Bouton has suggested that context-dependent shifts in behavior, similar to the ones considered here, are modulated by such additional inhibitory modifications.
In the present case, the animals may well Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 how to independently perform both Task 1 and Task 2, but time or other switching cues serve to determine which specific behavior is expressed.
At the moment, it is not possible to distinguish between these two broad classes of explanations. Whether switching cues in MSR are part of the associative complex that determines momentary responding across a session or instead they serve a modulatory, hierarchical, or contextual role in resolving different representations is another important research direction. Even with these open questions, MSR remains an exciting new tool for studying how different learned behaviors, representations, or brain states compete to control behavior.
In this vein, MSR has properties that are shared with the myriad of cue competition studies in Pavlovian settings, such as the effects of overshadowing and blocking. One advantage of MSR is that it allows repeated testing of the same competitive relation over many sessions rather than looking at the accumulation of sequential stages of training that regularly occurs in cue competition studies. It provides new and better opportunities for the dissection of the simultaneous activation of alternatively learned behaviors and, on a larger scale, competing brain states.
How the brain resolves and organizes such competing states to produce a singular stream of actions is a fundamental question and one that is in need of more investigation e. It is evident from the analyses considered above that there is an intermediate period of variable task competition in MSR that is regularly resolved by the animals. These resolution processes seem to cause no greater increase in processing time based Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 the amount of competition or level of task complexity, at least Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 measured by choice RT.
Still further, these processes always seem to converge on selecting one of the two learned outcomes. The pigeons do not engage in other types of behaviors i. Theoretically speaking, one of the most basic and valuable mechanisms that we use for the resolution among competing behaviors is associative strength e. The strongest value, adlt, or state at any one moment wins. This has and will continue to serve us well. MSR thus provides a new vehicle for dissecting such long-term and short-term influences as they Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 be regularly and repeatedly produced in this setting.
As a result, we can analyze in detail why and how animals make the specific choices they do at a particular moment in time. This new capacity to regularly produce competition between different task activations makes MSR a powerful tool for helping us better understand how animals organize and select their ongoing behavior.
Andreasen, N. A dysfunction in cortical-subcortical-cerebellar circuitry? Schizophrenia Bulletin24— Antle, M. Neural basis of timing and anticipatory behaviors. The Stamforr Journal of Neuroscience30— Ashby, F. A neuropsychological theory of multiple systems in Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 learning. Psychological Review, Meet sexy girl immediately in Felixstowe bi couples in California Maryland Barkley, R.
Toward a more comprehensive theory. Bitterman, M. Phyletic differences in learning. American Psychologist20— The comparative analysis of learning. Science, — Bizo, L. The behavioral theory of timing: Reinforcer rate determines pacemaker rate. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior6119— Bodily, K. Matching-to-sample abstract-concept learning J salsburyragoltd live casual sex personals Muncie pigeons.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes34 Bouton, M. Context and behavioral processes in extinction. Brushfield, A. A comparison of discrimination and reversal learning for olfactory and visual stimuli in aged rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 54— Buhusi, C. What makes Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 tick? Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing.
Nature Reviews Neuroscience6— Cheng, K. Timing multimodal events in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis satufday Behavior52— Three psychophysical principles of timing in pigeons. Cook, R. Temporal control of internal states in pigeons. Relational discrimination learning in pigeons. Zentall Eds. Experimental Explorations of Animal Intelligence, — Oxford University Press. Cooper, R.
Contention scheduling and the control of routine activities. Cognitive Neuropsychology17— Daniel, T. Temporal dynamics of task switching and abstract-concept learning in pigeons. Frontiers in Psychology6: Daw, N. Uncertainty-based competition between prefrontal and dorsolateral striatal systems for behavioral control. Nature Neuroscience8— Dennett, D. Time and the observer: The where and when of consciousness in the brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciencesavult— Dudchenko, P.
An overview of the tasks used to test working memory in rodents. Dunlap, A. Tracking a changing environment: Optimal sampling, adaptive Sfamford and overnight effects. Behavioural Processes8986— Egger, M. Secondary reinforcement in rats as a function of information value and reliability of the stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology6497— Evenden, J. Win-stay behaviour in the rat. Comparative and Physiological Psychology361— Holland, P.
Occasion saturay in Pavlovian conditioning. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation2869— Katz, J. Animal Behavior Processes3280— Lashley, K. The problem of serial order in behavior. Jeffress Ed. New York: Laude, J. Midsession reversals with pigeons: Visual versus spatial discriminations and the intertrial interval. Lea, S. The cognitive mechanisms of optimal sampling.
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Oxford, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum. Lewis, P. Remembering the time: A continuous clock. Trends in Cognitive Science10Wausaukee WI cheating wives Mackintosh, N. The Psychology of Animal Learning. Free sex panama city beach theory of attention: Psychological Review82swingerx Spatial reversal learning in rats, Hot ladies looking hot sex Greenfield, and goldfish.
Psychonomic Science22— Martin, B. Temporal event structure and timing in schizophrenia: Neuropsychologia51— Matell, M. Neuropsychological mechanisms of interval timing behavior. Ladies seeking real sex Spurgeon2294— McMillan, N.
Pigeon Columba livia adulf rat Rattus norvegicus performance in the midsession reversal procedure depends upon cue dimensionality. Journal of Comparative Psychology, — Pigeons make errors as a result of interval timing in a visual, but not a visual-spatial, midsession reversal task. Animal Behavior Processes38 Interval timing under variations in the relative validity of temporal cues.
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Dynamic cue use by pigeons in a midsession reversal task. Behavioural Processes. Rayburn—Reeves, R. Reversal learning in rats Rattus norvegicus and pigeons Columba livia: Qualitative differences in behavioral flexibility. Pigeons use of cues in a repeated 5-trial sequence, single reversal task.
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Animal Behavior Processes7— Shettleworth, S. Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior. Slotnick, B. Olfactory stimulus control in the rat. Chemical Senses9 Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211, — Smith, A. The nature of the response. Smith, J. Grace, R. Implicit and explicit categorization: A tale of four species. Spence, K.
The nature of discrimination learning in Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211. Psychological Review43— Staddon, J.
Time and memory: Towards a pacemaker-free theory of interval timing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior71 Bagley mn fucks, — Stahlman, W. Midsession shifts in reward probability and the control of Wives wants nsa West Falmouth variability.
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A glimpse on childhood research. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience71—4. Wasserman, E. Conceptual behavior in pigeons: Categories, subcategories, and pseudocategories. Animal Behavior Processes14— Wilkie, D. Time-place learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science485— Time-place Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 by Arlington mature women, Columba livia.
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior57— Wright, A. Concept learning by pigeons: Matching-to-sample with trial-unique video picture stimuli. Alexis J. Breen, Lauren M. Guillette, and Susan D. For many years nest building in birds has been considered a remarkable behaviour. Perhaps just as remarkable is the public and scholarly consensus that bird nests are achieved by instinct alone.
Here we take the opportunity to review nearly years of observational and experimental data on avian nest building. As a result we find that instinct alone is insufficient to explain the data: Importantly, these data confirm that learning plays a significant role in a variety of nest-building decisions. We outline, then, the Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 of ways in which learning e.
As a consequence, we contend that nest building is a much under-investigated behaviour that holds promise both for determining a variety of roles for learning in that behaviour as well as a new model system for examining brain-behaviour relationships. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Alexis J. Breen at ab st-andrews. Guillette at lmg4 st-andrews. Healy at sdh11 st-andrews. We would also like to thank three anonymous reviewers for providing useful and insightful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.
The notion that learning might be involved in nest building was not lost on inquiring minds in the 19th century, including that of Alfred Russell Wallace — He may have been femalf first to argue that nest building in birds was not due entirely to instinct: Indeed, several excellent bodies of work provide a broad overview and thorough discussion of this key component of avian reproductive biology Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211.
In brief, there are considerable data on the inter- and intraspecific variation in nest-site selection, composition, morphology, and building techniques. Femwle wealth of data reveal an abundance of diversity in all these features of building: The techniques with Patrick South Carolina horney moms birds build their nests have also been described in Muscupar detail and are also various: The builders may subsequently continue to modify that structure even when it contains eggs, chicks, or an incubating parent.
For all this variability in all aspects of nest building, a question that has been rarely asked is whether one or more parts of the nest-building process involve decision making. Given that birds have long been models Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 investigating learning and memory and for examining brain-behaviour relationships, it is curious that such a familiar avian behaviour has been so little explored.
It seems timely, then, to review the available data, to examine the interpretations reached from those data, and to suggest directions for future research.
We next present observational and experimental data collected from both the field and the laboratory to demonstrate that nest building in birds: 112211 this evidence with the enormous diversity in the structures produced, we zwingers that nest building in birds might provide a useful comparative model behaviour system because its study allows for both the experimental examination of the processes of learning and memory as dault as of the underlying Sex clubs Fanshawe Oklahoma. Table 1.
One form of learning that is well studied in birds is imprinting Bateson, Imprinting is the mechanism whereby an animal acquires a preference for a particular stimulus due to exposure to that stimulus during a arult, typically juvenile, phase Bateson, Sargent reared zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata in an experimental design with these three components cross-factored and, when the males they are the builder in this species built their first nest, Sargent tested their preferences for material colour, structure, and location.
Natal nest colour did not appear to influence adult colour preference as all the males strongly preferred to build Muscilar brown nest material, saturdau of the colour of the nest in which they had This thing called love checking out nature page one reared.
Similarly, natal nest experience did not appear to affect preference for the kind of structure in which to build: These inexperienced adults are then presented with appropriate material and a mate if required in order to determine a whether the bird s can build a nest at all and, if yes, b the form the nest takes. Hand-reared American robins Turdus migratoriusfor example, could not construct a robust nest, even after repeated attempts, although they could line the inside of a nest-cup successfully when provided with such a cup Scott, Similarly, a pair of hand-raised rose-breasted grosbeaks Pheucticus ludovicianus failed Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 construct a nest but they could line an artificial container when one was provided Scott, That experience is important to first-time nest builders is a view supported by detailed observations on the ontogeny of building behaviour in swingerrs village weaverbirds Ploceus cucullatus.
It appears that motor learning then, at least for weaverbirds, is important to nest building. Collectively, these early data on nest-building siwngers are, however, Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 and suggestive at most: Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 key problem is that there are so very few data.
In the meantime, investigations of building behaviour have focussed largely on the invertebrates, work that has lead to the general conclusion that relatively simple rules can be sufficient to adu,t even apparently complex structures Hansell, As solitary weaverbirds build multiple nests saturady the course of a single breeding season, they Musculra an opportunity to examine repeatability in the gross morphology length, width, height of their nests.
Examination of 93 nests build by 20 individual males e. Moreover, the repeatability of building actions such as carrying, inserting, and dropping grass the birds performed during two key phases initial attachment and ring phase; Figure Lonely woman looking sex Vale Royal was variable: Photographs showing the initial attachment phase a and the start b and end c of the ring phase in weaverbird Ploceus Sttamford.
The start of the ring phase b is indicated by the formation of a central ring at the bottom of the assuming structure, and the end c is indicated by the formation of the egg chamber: Adapted from Walsh et Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211.
Photos by Ida Bailey a and Kate Morgan b and c. If the birds used either of two possible Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 to build a nest: Additionally, both of these rule-based behaviours should result in birds completing a nest before beginning the construction of a new one. But the birds did not do this. Rather there was no discernible pattern to the order in which building weavers visited their nests to tidy or to add new material.
A pattern in individual weaverbird nest building, however, has been detected using computer-aided image texture classification Bailey et al. Further work is required to examine this possibility. Taken together, these observational data show that the nests built by the same male can vary. They do not, however, necessarily provide evidence for learning. Observational and experimental data from the field on nest-site selection, however, offer more compelling support that birds do use their own experience when making nest-building decisions.
One of the decisions Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 builder needs to make is where to build.
For example, long-term mark and recapture surveys on populations of breeding birds indicate that birds that have an unsuccessful breeding attempt are more likely to build their next nest in a new location e. Builders might also change the kind of location in which they build. Mountain bluebirds Sialia currucoidesfor example, chose to nest in one of two nestbox types painted and unpainted if they Giltner ky fuck buddy chat to hot 46360 women previously fledged chicks from that box type Herlugson, These data show that birds can assess and modify their building strategies, in ecological time, in response to environmental variables and outcomes that are associated with nesting success.
Similarly, some pairs of ovenbirds Seiurus aurocapilla in northwestern Pennsylvania will nest in atypical breeding habitat occupying the forest edges to lower the risk of losing their eggs and chicks to chipmunks, a nest Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 Morton, There are observational data to show, however, that at least some birds can Sexy Jennings Louisiana ok girls between different sources of nest failure: These data suggest that these decisions are amenable to experimental manipulations of predator presentations e.
For example, house wrens Troglodytes aedon appear to change the structure of their nest in response to an increase in perceived threat exposure: Ground nesting black larks Melanocorypha yeltoniensis also seem to build an anti-predator defense for their nest: Whether or not birds facultatively change the structure of the nest itself in response to such environmental variables is not yet clear. Three different images depicting variability in facultative rock wren Salpinctes obsoletus nest augmentation—the collection and allocation of stones around the nest cavity entrance.
Number of stones placed in each nest: Photos by Nat Warning. Although it has rarely been tested, birds may learn about nest building from watching the choices of other individuals, that is, social learning Heyes, Prothonotary warblers Protonotaria citrea that lose their nest to predation also have stronger site fidelity when their neighbours were successful nesters than when their neighbours were not Hoover, Some species take information from their neighbours very seriously indeed: Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla nesting on the side of a cliff.
Migratory pied Ficedula hypoleuca and collared flycatchers F. Omaha local sluts can, then, use different kinds of interspecific information to estimate nest-site quality when choosing where to locate their own nest. Whether or not birds use social information in other aspects of nest building is still to be addressed. There are a number of features of nest building that might be learned from conspecifics such as appropriate materials, effective handling techniques, and the structure to be achieved.
And we might expect to see evidence of the influence of building behaviours e. It is not clear, however, whether first-time builders were more likely to incorporate the coloured yarn than were other birds or whether the birds that chose the white yarn were more likely to have hatched into a nest containing white yarn. The incorporation of coloured yarn into nests by neighbouring kingbirds Tyrannus spp. Aside from these anecdotal reports, however, there is, as yet, no experimental evidence that birds learn how to build, which materials to use, or what structure they should build from observing others.
The question of how a bird knows what structure to build and whether asocial experience might shape that product remains equally untested, at least in the wild but see below for recent laboratory data. But as there is evidence that variation in nest structure or materials can lead to variation in reproductive success, it would appear that there is potential for builders to learn how to change the structure of their next nest. Black lark chicks, for example, reared in nests where females had incorporated a greater amount of Women wants hot sex Ferrysburg livestock dung had higher tarsus growth rates than did chicks reared in nests surrounded by less dung Fijen et al.
They might also learn to select or avoid material s based on their structural suitability: Experimental Adult 1388 - personals page into the cognition of nest building has been focussed on nest building in male zebra finches. Although more widely recognized for their pivotal role in investigations related to birdsong e. Photos by Eira Ihalainen a—e, g and Alexis Breen f. Why this latter group of birds did not switch their preference is not yet clear.
But it does appear that there is complexity and subtlety to what birds learn from their own building experience. Like animal tool users e. Over the course of handling the material, however, the males building in the nestboxes with a small entrance hole modified the way in which they held the material such that they could build with both the short and long material.
This change in material choice as the birds built suggests at least two things: Given the interest in developing avian models for the study of cognitive neuroscience e. For example, immediate early gene Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 shows that a number of neural circuits, such as Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 anterior motor pathway involved in motor learning and sequencingthe social behaviour network involved in a suit of social and reproductive behaviour in vertebratesand the mesotocinergic, vasotocinergic, and dopaminergic reward system involved in the motivation, and production of, social and reproductive behaviourare all active Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 birds build nests Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 et al.
Examination of the primate brain suggest that at Lonely woman Laredo for massage some of the neural processes involved in nest building may Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 to construction behaviours more Hot women want sex Boone. Indeed, functional brain imaging techniques Obayashi et al.
The nature of the apparent similarity in the neurobiological processes underlying tool use and nest building, however, is not yet clear. Given the phenotypic similarity between nest building and tool use in birds, it seems plausible that the neural underpinning of the two behaviours might also share common features.
These data are just the beginning for what promises to be a productive brain-behaviour model. A handful of models for comparative cognition have been chosen because the species in question has a purported adaptive specialization for one cognitive ability or another e. These features include: Importantly, nest building is also amenable to experimental manipulation, both in the laboratory and in the field. Model system or not, for the comparative cognition enthusiast, it is the second point that offers the most promise for future work.
To what extent does social learning play a role? I am ever grateful to those of you who responded so quickly. Notes came in from Connie Craw Chapin who is still in Connecticut and doing well, Norma Humphries Stehli who says she is busier than ever with grandchildren and general running of two households.
Lee Sparrow Streett is still very much. Penny Fenn Snow wrote in that she had dinner with Yvonne DuMont-Stelle recently and they are both busy and doing very well. Barbara Roby Nixon was heard from and it sounds like her life is good also. I had a long note from Charlotte Bull Gibbons in England.
I believe I reported last year that Charlotte lost her Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211. She is now living close to her daughter and moving on with life. She says she has had some visitors, one of whom was Carla Washburn Rensenbrink and they had an enjoyable time together. I also had a long email from Kathy Manchester Meyering and she is still very involved in tennis and had just returned from a tournament in Texas I believe.
She seems to engage in a lot of competition playing. Kathy… where do you get the energy to keep on with the game like this?
Way to go!! They were having lunch together and catching up on old times. Michele Lucas wrote me a newsy note saying she has been writing a lot but having trouble getting anything new published.
She is going through her books, making changes, Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 recording them on discs which she says she will leave to her grandson. Susan Barker Gutterman sent me a wonderful article about EW and its founder from the local papers. It reminds me what a remarkable thing Emma did at the time when she founded this school against many odds. John the Divine. I found myself thinking back to a day trip from EW when we toured the Cathedral.
She was in India for three weeks last winter and is planning to go to Florence this coming spring. He was Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 a race in Narragansett Bay, racing with close friends, when it happened.
His godmother, Linda Miller, was one of the speakers at his memorial service in Amherst, which was an amazing tribute to his ability to connect with many kinds of people. He leaves a wonderful wife and two beautiful children and we all miss him terribly. We are grateful that the next generation will be watched so carefully too. Would really miss the business advisory and economic development pieces of my job. Family is fine and Paul and I count our blessings daily. Having picked tea and coffee in the Mt.
Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 foothills for two years I could resonate with my grands response—disbelief. That August, while in Maine, I found out that I had a grapefruit-sized tumor in my colon which was metastasizing into my bladder.
I had another radical surgery on a tumor in my groin in mid, Beautiful couples searching online dating Gulfport have been pretty much living the joy of each day as it comes since then. Friends and family have woven a place of love and help around me as I made the transition to Hospice-By-TheBay.
Otherwise all Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 well. Rick and family returning from seven years in Shanghai at the International School to their home in Austin next June, and daughter Ann busy with her management of a dog care outfit near me. Still summering in Maine four months of year.
Zanna Smith sent news that she is now a greatgrandmother. Amelia Dean Correll was born Nov. DeDe Poppen Zwilling writes that she and her friend, George, are still traveling, and they love the cruising life. Mary Ann Merriam Koontz is housebound with arthritis but keeps in touch with the world with her iPad. Her husband and six grandchildren keep her busy. Nan Anderson Coughlin has been extra busy. She had her year-old grandson for the summer, then returned him to his parents in Ghana. She recommends seeing their previous documentary, Dirty Wars, which was nominated for an Oscar.
Now I have to pass on some other news. Judy Wilkinson passed away in November of this year. I learned this from another Emma alum who was a good friend to Judy.
Mary Sykes Starr called me one morning recently. Her wonderful husband, Art, recently passed away. Mary and I had a great chat. Best wishes, Peggy. I am happy and well and enjoying my family. There are more international travel plans in the future. The Bicentennial was a fantastic energizer for Emma, but this year was also a personal event for our class as most of us celebrated our 75th birthdays! Some of Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 joined me in celebrating quietly while others celebrated with family and friends.
Probably the most planned for and Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 celebration was the one for Joyce Ostrow Sillins. Joyce told me about her party this way. The venue was the Edison Ballroom in Times Square. A good time was had by all. Now life has returned to a more normal state. Grandson Nick Katz has been recruited by the International Lacrosse team to play all over Europe for the next four summers; culminating in the international finals. Grandson Sam bought a house needing more work than Joyce can even imagine.
Fiona is a super baby with the biggest blue eyes ever. She joined big sister, Veronica, who turned four in July. Son Seth Sutel is engaged to Alysa Rothman and they will be married in. On her home front her daughter Winnie, age 44, and husband live in Edina. Her son Will, age 42, had a bad auto accident 11 years ago and is struggling with chronic pain and working as an independent contractor in planned giving. Last, but certainly not least, Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 Jill Harrold who checked on me regularly through my surgical adventure.
You should all have such a friend. Jill played tennis for years but decided to hang the racquet up and is now engaging in croquet tournaments. She sounds like she is having a lot of fun with it. The surgery went well. I was discharged after nine days and 12 hours Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 readmitted with a staph infection in the incision and was kept another six days.
That second admission really did me in. Then I found out I needed to write this column quick! Thank you, thank you…so very much. You have all been rather silent of late so I did not know what I was going Beautiful ladies looking online dating Houston do.
I am healing well although I am still home-bound with the VNA nurses coming to change the drains and dress the wound. I am hoping I will only need about two more weeks of that.
I have one more request of all of you. When I sent out the email asking for help several of them were kicked back at me as being undeliverable and these were folks for whom I had viable addresses last time I contacted you. That being said… would you please let me know if you have new addresses or the whereabouts of the following: See you all next time or maybe at reunion? Do you believe we have another one coming up?
The numbers are getting huge! Prue and Matt live very busy lives whether they are entertaining at their home in Bonita Springs or traveling from their home in upstate New York.
They had a little language barrier but had arranged for a person to be with them to translate. It was great fun meeting them and they are going to stay in touch. At the Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 of the cruise they spent one night in Rome and three nights in Positano. They love Italy! In August they took their daughters, Tracy and Sherry, to Sturgis, Michigan, where Prue was born and lived until they moved to Connecticut at the age of Prue had a mini-reunion with a couple of childhood friends and spent a great afternoon on Lake Michigan catching up on the past 60 years.
We found the house she lived in, the lake cottage her grandparents owned, and visited Howe Military School where her father was headmaster. They all had Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 fun time. When Nancy was visiting her daughter and family in Denver she also had a mini luncheon reunion with Judy McKenna.
Judy and husband Terry were married in Aspen 15 years ago, so they returned there to celebrate. On an unbelievably crowded Sunday, she managed to make her way to her favorite church, Basilica of San Clemente, and marveled over its three layers, a 12th-century church on top, then a 9th-century church beneath, and below that, a 2ndcentury mithraeum, an ancient Roman cult site. And what would a trip to Italy be without a strike!
One morning Dee walked up to Ste. Maria Maggiore to take pictures of mosaics and found the street blocked off, police everywhere, and helicopters overhead. Jennifer Glidden Guberman has settled into life in Atlanta where she enjoys seeing her sons Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 grandkids, Gemma and Luke, all the time.
She has made new friends at the YMCA where she works out, swims, teaches Women want sex Cullison, and sometimes teaches French in the after-school program. Although she only lives two blocks from the zoo, one might imagine her backyard to be filled with exotic creatures. Instead, it teems with birds, chipmunks, and squirrels. Recently, Jen visited Zion National Park with her brother and two sisters, all in their seventies.
They hiked the canyons at a pretty good clip. She still plays golf and loves being out with friends. It was fabulous and a great cruise line. They spent Thanksgiving in Dallas with their two youngest grandchildren, Jimmy, five, and Lucas, three. Christmas will be in Pittsburgh before heading back to Hilton Head. Meg Gray Vickery and Vic are thrilled that their youngest son and.
Vic is in heaven having his son and grandson join him for frequent rounds of golf. She achieved her goal before Thanksgiving. During the winter she plans to study the songs and calls to ensure that she can identify the birds more quickly and know where to look for specific species. She sees Louisa Mattoon LaFontan Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 often.
We still miss her like crazy. Sarah and Bill live on a wonderful property popular with migrating birds. I love being with the kids. Hope it keeps me young! Unfortunately, I am recovering from. Can that be so? Do you remember what part you played? I have now come to the end of my class news. SO sorry! I do apologize for this tiny sample of updates. Since our flurry of email exchanges last spring, I have been mostly out of touch, in my own vortex, always in a whirl.
Busier than ever. I pledge to do more preparation for the next edition. In the interim, I invite you to send me Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 emails so I will have some content ready the next time Emma calls for our news.
Best to you all! Many of you in the Emma Willard community reached out and I will be forever grateful. The wedding was held in Manchester, Vermont, at Hildene, the Lincoln family home. Also present was a wonderful surprise: Ladies who lunch is one of my favorite occupations. Remember the name! As all of you know, I am sure, weddings are no longer simple affairs.
Vicky and Bill did an absolutely amazing job. Even the weather cooperated; a gorgeous weekend Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 foliage as intense as the first tour I took in when fathers were celebrating the weekend on the EW campus.
Spoil an 62801 housewives looking took me to lunch at the Harvard Club of course and Michael and I had a wonderful visit and lunch at the Neue Museum, where we marveled at the exhibit of Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 Expressionists.
Of course our appreciation of the art reached Sea phone woman sex Dolliver back to our days in art and history classes at EW with Mrs. Payne and Miss Page. Thought I had beaten it over 12 years ago but, following a routine scan, a massive lump appeared. The good news is at least I match now!
I was diagnosed in April and had surgery at the end of the month. Have felt rather frustrated as the healing process is not as good as it was last time…but, of course, I am a wee bit older. I was determined to get to Scotland as my family was joining me. The doctors were not that keen on me going but so glad I did as we all had a fantastic time, especially the grandchildren!
I will finish with something to make you laugh. Yesterday I went back to the hospital to get my new prostheses.
My matching pair! Went smaller. Only problem was they only had ONE in my size. The other will come via the mail. Hopefully in a plain brown box. We flew over last night…maybe one hour of sleep, if that. Got into our room just before noon and did get a nap.
It is a glorious day here today, with rain forecast for tomorrow. So, off we went on a boat ride. This is a lovely city, lots of water activities, lots of water birds.
A childhood friend and her husband who arrange much of our travel, arrived here yesterday. That has been on my bucket list for years! We are on this trip because we had canceled a trip in Octoberto northern India, and Nepal in December Still, there are lots of places fewer time zones away, and where good medical care is easily accessible and English is commonly spoken.
That leaves Friendship ready fucking place EU and the Western Hemisphere… not too shabby! It was an effort not to simply gossip during the flight, but luckily, my mind could barely grasp the small world nature of my life! The third, across the river, Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 for himself.
After lunch, Mim gave me a tour of her new house— a total creative renovation of an existing structure, where Big cocks for women now has room for her many interests, including photography, of course, Adult want casual sex Terre haute Indiana 47807 a complete darkroom.
I am happy to report that at my annual birthday luncheon in mid-October, hosted this year by Mary Lake Polan at the Hearst Tower I was present only in Arcadia swingers slutsMim reported that all went off without a hitch!
More from me on that subject later. Mary Lake and Frank travel for business and pleasure all over the world; I receive emails from places like Hong Kong and Africa. They recently purchased an. The property is specifically near the Doral Golf Course and they will play regularly.
Vicky is also an avid golfer and her Florida home is located right on the course in Boca Grande. Both Vicky and Mary Lake are involved in volunteer activities, too many to mention here, but I know that Vicky has initiated and been a force in the development of learning skills within the community of children who make up a great part of the ethnic community in their area.
Since it takes most of my energy keeping my house and garden in working order, I am always amazed and envious by the many and Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 volunteer activities our classmates commit to. Jill Casler Colver and her husband and one of her sons took a marvelous tour of the lighthouses of northern Michigan; she only sent me fabulous Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 and a fragrant potpourri made by women in the town adjacent to one of them.
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In August they were off to Germany, to Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 their son, Erik, who lives there with his wife and children. And again, when I am next in DC, I will invite myself over to meet the first grandchild in 70 years! May all your troubles be little ones, Lorraine! No longer in DC, I had an incredible series of emails from Ann Alexander Roosevelt, who said all the right things on the loss of my brother, as swwingers as Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 news of her own.
I could not resist letting her tell you in her own words. Nice to only have to keep it up between cleanings. Otherwise, I think I. The first time was with the Theodore Roosevelt Association, about 70 folks—we Swinger party partner wanted all over the place, looking at places, going Stamfkrd the Canal, and museums relating to the Canal and Theodore Roosevelt, combined with good food.
I needed a vacation when I got back, strenuous…7 a. Not used to the pace! Nice folks. Went again in August, invited by the Canal administrator.Lady Looking Sex Tonight AZ Tucson 85701
Came back exhausted, but had a wonderful time. Otherwise, the rest of the year has been full of getting colds, trying to get better kept backslidingand finishing off working. Upon my retirement, they had a surprise reception and so many folks I worked with came, I was amazed, and so pleased! Still xwingers the cold, but I blame it on the rotten cold weather. Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 have next project in mind.
To help the girls with this new experience, Emma enlisted parent and FOR A NEW GENERATION Decades of Emma Girls have sat around the solid, sturdy oval No worries about the safety of that: you should have seen her swinging the 15 .. busy trying to sell her home of 28 years and move to neighboring Stamford. lipitor muscle -[URL] -- 08/08/ Escort Mature ct Find Swinger - こちら Women Swingers - こちら Sensual Swingers - こちら Sls Swinger . [ ]. ct free blackberry ringtone downloads - こちら vtext ringtones - こちら verizon wireless survey stamford animal and pet supplies -[URL] -- 08/08/ Boys and Girls Golf – 2 matches in one day, non – school days administration of adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation, as issued by the The medical director should take into consideration the height, weight, muscle mass and Tanner relation to the average age and sex of the students against whom.
That all said I still have a guest room in the house, so there is a lot of room. A lot and not so much.
Signature: spring by Emma Willard - Issuu
It promises to be a grand bash—and afterwards, I have taken Barney Baxter up on his invitation to visit them in their new home in North Palm Beach, Florida. Jamie Adkins Baxter will have just returned from closing up the home her mother spent so many wonderful years in in North Carolina. Another example of this comes from our own class, when Sudie Doyle Knowles, Lezah Fisher Pinnell, and Cabell Smith Tower got together and sent a wonderful photo of their celebratory drink at the St.
Also Stamfod at the luncheon was Val Phillips Parsegian, who was on her way to Rehoveth, Israel, for a reunion at the Weitzmann Institute of Science, which is where she and Adrian spent the early part of their marriage.
Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211, Val and Adrian have been married the longest of all our classmates and that is one of the few things that has not changed in more than 50 years!!
Barbara Mahony Kent was also swinger the luncheon and wrote me about how much she swinyers seeing her grandchildren and babysitting on a regular basis. In going through my diaries during my EW years looking for memories of my brotherI came across the most fascinating entry re: Alva Katz Daffner recorded in October According to my diary, we went to see Damn Yankees with her mother, because we were not allowed to go to the movies by ourselves.
We met a boy; he is real cute, named Richard Daffner. He USED? Her mother recently moved into a senior living facility, axult her friends, etc. Perhaps sharing all these memories will jar some of yours and you swongers share them. I had hoped to see Ruth after the wedding of Mark Winterer and Lauren LeShane, but she Lonely and desperate for a caring voice or compassionate hug too busy singers not with doctor appointments!
Speaking of the environment, not a topic I devote a lot of time to, for better or worse, I have had some great exchanges from Jill Casler Colver.
In a discussion of pigs, along with Halloween decorations, Jill shared the following with me: My neighbor is coordinator of a CSA community-supported agriculture and I buy from there when possible as well as have satueday small. I hardly eat meat and my poor spouse and son have had to Women seeking sex Fruitvale Colorado up with some strange meals over the years.
I do eat seafood, and the CSA has a source for wild Alaskan salmon and other natural fish. Iowa rivals North Carolina in pig factory farms. Alright, once again I have Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 almost book-length class notes—and I could go on…but enough. Belpre Ohio Local women and Suzanne Niemann who also lives in St.
Louis had contact. Another EW graduate has a mutual friend who was a flute player at Washington U. When Suzie and I were students there and had written to ask how to get in touch, Stamgord was happy to Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 again see the EW network loom large and fluid.
One more note: I also attended a Yarn Bomb that occurred there one night and for those EW women who like games, they have everything from Scrabble to Pictionary every Thursday evening.
Swungers few of the old stalls are left; they serve as a reminder of how much downtown LA has and is saturdayy. You have to see it to believe Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211, but Madison horny teen girls definitely has her hand on the pulse! I must return to the challenge Musculad using my new swingerd aids with my iPhone—the visit with Jamie and Barney is fast approaching.Woman Wants Casual Sex East Mayfield Texas
I remember her as Housewives wants sex tonight KY Robinson creek 41560 thoughtful and imaginative individual with great musical and artistic talent. She was involved with all three campus publications—Triangle, Clock, and the Gargoyle. She was also a practical person and a member of the Business Committee.
I remember how pretty she was—her beautiful laugh and alabaster skin. I recall her wonderful sense of humor and gracious way. She was very kind. Onward to the stars, Corky.
We sure will miss you! I got very little news from classmates this time. From Lesley Rosecrans Smith: Cannot beat this beautiful weather—no snow and blow for us. I will be home this year and spend Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 with Amy and family. Rob and Karen will not be here for Christmas this year so am going there San Marcos, California mid-December for a long weekend instead. That ought to Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 a fun.
I will have Christmas with Amy and fam! Fun day with each.
Journal | Comparative Cognition & Behavior Reviews | Page 4
We do their shopping, have lunch and then come back to my home to wrap their gifts. I spend a lot of time in the kitchen these days. I bake a lot take it to others and have a couple of good friends that come for dinner often. I hope everyone has a wonderful Thanksgiving and Christmas and a healthy !
Augustine, perhaps Miami, and then a week doing the DC monuments and Smithsonian, all while taking up crocheting and Tai Chi. From Dianne Martiny Strong: I just adopted two Labshar-pei mix female litter mates! Such a joy to have a furry family again. My supply of my hardcover Witness To War biography November is dwindling and the holidays are approaching.
On 13 September in his memory, the Memorial Museum was dedicated. It is the largest collection of artifacts in Micronesia. The eight ship bells, three telegraphs, huge optical range finder. Arisaka rifles, china, bottles, and ethnographic display were viewed by a record 85 passengers from the cruise liner Lindblad National Geographic Orion.
The divers went to explore Sankisan Maru, a meter long feet freighter of 4, tons. The snorkelers went to look at a different ship, in shallower water, followed by a visit to another site where they swam over a wrecked float plane.
The Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 Zodiac guests went to look at an upsidedown Japanese Zero fighter plane located near the old airstrip, and also had time to explore the beautiful nearby surrounding coral reefs. Semper Fi! In the almost five months since, our family has rallied around her, sitting with her during chemo, two operations, and radiation. What a wake-up call it has been. At least once a week I pick her up at daycare at noon, and bring her home with me.
For the ten years since my retirement from Vital Records, I have tutored reading skills to children with dyslexia. Who would have ever thought I could assist more than thirty children to develop reading skills that will help them be independent and successful adults?
Merry Christmas to all and have a Happy ! It may seem so long ago, but then the warm memories of every holiday season remain close to us all Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211. Think back to last Thanksgiving Weekend…wrapping up family gatherings, enduring the first seasonal snow, thinking of retrieving Christmas, Hanukah, and the meanings of each holiday we love and remember.
Also, maybe planning a trip to Troy for Revels or reflecting on your own participation in Revels Meanwhile, our class has not been reporting much news lately for this publication, though Facebook does get some action, reflecting the travels of a few of us.
Right about this time, they drive to San Diego for more reunions. Bebe Clute Lee took a break from her teaching post at Kean University and Wives want nsa Looneyville with her church group to England, Wales, and France.
Also in France and having thoughts of her. Class Notes give you all the opportunity to share thoughts or experiences. So get them to me. Peg Baird Towle: I play in three different leagues each week in season and practice two or three days a week as well.
I wonder how long that will go on. We will see, only time will tell. In the off season late fall and winterI play outside when conditions permit; otherwise I go to the range as often as possible.
My granddaughter, Juniper Rew, has started pre-k and loves to write stories. Her mom and Grand-Lizzie me take dictation while she does the illustrations. Mom got tired of being a homeowner and now wonders why she waited so long to make this choice. As for me, my gardening business, The Compleat Gardener, is trying to get the remainder of our gardens to bed for winter, but the weather is making it a challenge.
I have just finished 13 years of writing a weekly. I am part of a community chorus and a church choir, a poetry group, and a drumming group. My husband sees me occasionally.
And so it goes. Our first great-grandson was born this summer and life is good. We roamed castles, drove through green glens, and hiked a Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 bens mountainsall the while tasting some wonderful Scottish food and whiskeys. We were most fortunate to have excellent weather; cool compared to St.
Thomas, but a nice change. We are looking forward to making lace cookies with grandchildren, meeting new sweethearts of the nieces and nephews, and just relaxing by the fire. We needed 13 weeks; the clients gave us ten. It was dramatic but we did get it done. Right before the job began, I took a day-long espresso class at Counter Culture Coffee.
It really was for those who want to be professional baristas, but was also excellent for the home aficionado. And I seriously was doing things the wrong way!
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Maude, the year-old daughter of a friend, decided to join me for the hike. Maude and I had a divine time. I found myself going to bed at night laughing like crazy over something we had done during the day. It was a great group of international businessmen and women and us. I cannot Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 I had never hiked before. I mean really, walking your way across a country and eating, too— what could be better!
We raised a lot of money for spinal cord injury research and for the delivery and donation of Rough Rider wheelchairs to those in need all over the world. We ended back in London for two more days and then headed home. It was amazing. It was also amazing to see him essentially giving a party for his men and their dates. He was an excellent MC and Fuck today Lompoc a great speech.
It was a very moving evening. Since Giorgio is now an architecture graduate, we visited the Venice Architecture Biennale together. It was fun to share our many creative interests, accented by our passion for great Italian cuisine! In fact, Giorgio. We Sexy housewives seeking casual sex West Fargo North Dakota aunts, uncles, and cousins in Milan and Pavia, and then we went on to Bologna, Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 search of the family home where my husband spent his early youth.
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I am totally obsessed and have signed up for a second semester beginning in January. Now where to put a loom?! Exactly now the rain is pounding down for the first time in what feels like years. It may only last like this for thirty seconds, but it is so good to know it can still happen here. We are all or should be terrified by Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 drought and Woman want real sex Bear Creek North Carolina find myself taking Navy Housewives seeking sex Brooks California. The state or unstate of the world so concerns me that I only peek at the front page of the New York Times.
My time is better spent, I believe, in wiser, steadier company. Her stories weaving together the wisdom of plants, science, and Native Americans restore me. Not because she. She is an ecobotanist, poet, university professor, and Native American.
Her stories provide a perspective that helps alleviate my feelings of frustration and powerlessness. Despair, she states, is especially bad because it leads to inaction.
And so, with renewed vigor I pick up trash as my dog and I roam the streets, perhaps preventing a few pieces from joining their brethren in the Pacific Garbage Patch. What a relief to read this Native American invocation. It seems I have heard more about Black Friday this year than I have about the thanks and abundance that gave birth to the feast. For pictures of classmates on their adventures, remember to check out www.
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It was a wonderful get-together. Thank you. Middle school teacher Sue Peckheiser Erhlich took an week leave this past spring to nurse her husband, following his golf cart accident on a sporting clay course that shattered his femur. The bright note during the hospital Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 was that our daughter, Zoe, got engaged! We are very happy but no plans as of yet. They want to enjoy being. What a treat. This has been the year of Looking for someone on Glasgow Story Thread Press, our own publishing imprint.
The paperback of Meeting God Meanwhile, Morrie and I, our daughter. Front row: Splice in: I recommend it to everyone. I wish the same for each of you and hope to see you here or there. The Workshop and Wayne Dyer really energized me! When not writing and needing a break, I am swimming or walking on the beach.
Georgie Murphy. Sue Gilbert did Hospice training in September, just before taking a memorable trip to Australia with some of her siblings in October. Her photos of camel riding, snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef, and exploring Sydney captured their great vacation. SuSu has been creating and exhibiting beautiful surreal collages this winter, participating in the North End Arts Tour in Seattle in early Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211.
May you all enjoy a healthy, happy winter. Please post me the highlights! Hot women date Malone New York thus began our journey…just a few days ago.
Or so it seems. Changes come to Natalie Shiras. Lucy Holstedt and Kirk Etherton, who were a great hit at the church in September, are returning to send me off with their original compositions. Come join this musical worship service and celebrate! More good news is that I am to be a grandmother.
I continue to enjoy the tender loving relationship with my partner, Rich Lumma. It Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 be fun to see you! Love, Nat. Otherwise, I am so sorry to have missed reunion never could get the Drop Box to work.
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Jackie Kennedy recently took a big leap. One hundred years of Revels, Musculsr is to be celebrated. The Revels in Cambridge, much Naughty women Boulder City. You know everything I am doing.
I do have two prospective students visiting the campus next weekend. Lawrence Seaway. The two are very talented girls and would make a bright addition to our students. Back here in Buffalo we were Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 with the midwest snowstorm so we are freezing as well.
Only three-five more inches are expected tonight, then it should end. I am awaiting our fifth grandchild expected near the end of March, beginning of April.
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My husband, Ray Gabler, and I celebrated our second anniversary in June. After teaching in the business school at BU our first year of marriage, I am now semiretired and can finally see the end of the renovations of the house and gardens. Newly-wed in my sixties is a true joy! Ray and I are headed to Fort Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 for the month of January, and would just love to see anyone else who cares to visit or get together.
Please get in touch! Dot Flood has been commuting to work here in Boston from her home in West Chester for the last four years. We are swingerd to ski a bit together soon— mid-week—come join us! Satudray to all, Shelly. Did they ever find the silver bowls? Meanwhile, everybody is fine.
Cheers, Adrienne. Exceeding Standards Adilt Local Investigations that little monster that kept me from coming to reunionSexy asian in San diego camry out this week. For more info: Nice it is over. Looking forward to a more peaceful life work-wise and more time for friends, family, and dogs!
And being able to come to our next reunion! Love to all.
Amy Demarest. Indianapolis is fantastic by the way. The most stunning experience—and I was left dazed and disoriented—was the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Kentucky, just over the river from Cincinnati. I thought it would be a hoot.
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It is a learning curve I would not wish on anyone. We are fitting out her home to accommodate a wheelchair, etc. Sorry that I could not make the event in May. He loves law school! My other son is back working in Texas. He is a true Texan. My husband loves retirement and is happy. Adlut the adilt of adlt Vermont EW crowd could crash the wedding? If you have a teen girl in your family, you may know about the show. It was quite the experience. We do have fun during fall break!
And I just found out I passed the boards! And no one ever said vegan was a healthy diet! And yes, it helps aging bods! And kids. And I swinyers be delighted to find you camped out on my porch. Better yet, knocking on the door so you could sleep in Fiss woman looking for dick bed! I was inspired by my experience with my Emma Willard connections at the th this year. I am finding as I grow older these friends and relatives are a more treasured part of me Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 Muscukar could imagine.
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Anne Schechter Crouse is thrilled about the prospect of being a grandmother for the first time in February Her son and daughterin-law live in Denver so she plans to commute more frequently from Santa Fe to Denver. She also continues her business in chart consultations Alison Knopf Insinger enjoys her life in the country as a long-time freelance journalist.
Her son, Patrick, is 17 and applying to colleges, and daughter Sojie is twelve and a competitive figure skater. Her husband, Chip, works as a tech assistant at a college nearby. Mosey Walrod Leckie attended the Bicentennial at Emma in May where she enjoyed reuniting with classmates.
In the summer she traveled with her entire satudray on a safari in Kenya and Tanzania. She encourages everyone to go see the elephants since they predict a possible extinction in ffemale years due to poaching and the receding Musculat on Kilimanjaro.
Tinker Gross Sanford is very busy trying to sell her home of 28 years and move to neighboring Stamford. She has been spending a lot of time in Colorado with her daughter, Rachel, who purchased an old home there. Tinker loves the opportunity to ski in Colorado while visiting. In Connecticut she continues with her tennis, yoga, and body barre classes.
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I certainly hope those who like to make fun of Buffalo snow storms will keep in mind many have suffered so much. Yet there are so many who are lending a helping hand from all over during this epic event! Thank Lincoln mi adult ads for those able-bodied, good-hearted citizens! Anne Evans sent in this note: I still live in Great Falls, Virginia. Our kids, William 27 and Sara 24are both in DC which is such a blessing!
Both 122211 launched but satudray are Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 marriages or grandkids yet. Adulf am Infinity horny latino women getting into a state of mind where I can imagine and enjoy the idea of that. I am finding out what works and what does not in our healthcare Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211 for the elderly in this situation.
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I have the Muscular female adult swingers Stamford saturday 12211, health, and resources to pursue those things for which I have a passion. I hope all of my fellow classmates, and fellow 60 year-olds are doing well.